The principal types are Axminster, Brussels and Wilton, and brief particulars of each are given below. A more detailed description is given under each name. Axminster is a cut fabric made any width and with any number of colours. It is not produced on a jacquard, therefore the pile does not show on the back. The design is developed by a series of tufts which are bound into the fabric, every tuft is on the surface and only the foundation cloth is seen at the back. There are two principal varieties of these carpets, the Chenille Axminster and the Machine tufted Axminster. The Chenille type is made by two distinct operations, that of manufacturing the chenille weft and that of weaving the carpet with this weft. The " fur or chenille is first woven on an ordinary loom (see chenille) and when cut into the strips is used as weft with a linen, jute or folded cotton warp. The chenille is made preferably with the leno way of shedding in order to bind the wool yarn more firmly. All the figuring weft is on the surface and not embedded in the fabric. The chenille weft is often inserted by hand, but several mechanical methods for doing the work are now in use. From three to six tufts per inch are usual. The chenille Axminster Carpet is also known as the Patent Axminster carpet. The machine-tufted type or Royal Axminster is also formed from pile tufts previously prepared and afterwards woven in the ground warp and bound into the fabric with a binding weft. The tufts may be inserted by hand and the pile is all on the surface of the fabric. This pile is a warp product, whereas for the chenille variety it is weft. Axminster carpets are a product of skill and patience and any number of colours can be used. There are several varieties of machine-made axminster carpets. Wilton is a cut pile fabric woven 27-in. wide from not more than six colours, the yarns are fine counts and design produced by jacquards. Brussels is made almost in the same way as a Wilton, but the pile is not cut and this shows as loops on the face. The yarn is much coarser than for Wiltons. Kidderminster - A carpet made from two or more plain cloths woven together. Each cloth is brought on the face for figuring as required. Turkish - These are hand made. The pile is put into the ground warp by hand as tufts and knotted round them according to pattern. There are two picks of ground weft between each row of pile. Tapestry - Carpets woven from printed warps. The pile is cut or left uncut as required for the design. Persian - Carpets similar to Turkish, being hand made. See also Axminster, Brussels, Kidderminster, Persian Tapestry, Turkish, Wilton Carpets, Body Brussels, Brusselette, Ingrain.

Dictionary of the English textile terms. 2014.

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